Recording studios

R1 in simple words


Do - Don't Carefully


Roundffusor1 theory


Low frequency-Why?


R1's Tests


High - End




How to buy R1

This site is made, written and updated 


 zainea liviu


Skype: zainea.liviu





























Roundffusor1 is protected by the United States Patent Nr.: 7261182

 and the

European Patent Nr.: 1506541


A Legend will be... 

In fact, any real invention is a matter of precognition or clairvoyance

 We were invited paper at the Acoustical Society of America's Pittsburgh Poster Session: Halls for Music Performance: Another Two Decades of Experience 1982-2002. We presented ''THE GIALINO MOUSIKO THEATRO'' designed by Zainea Liviu and built from 1993 to 1997.

<Veritatis simplex oratio est >  <The language of truth is simple>    Seneca

SIMPLICITY - hard to be achieved...


When and How does the grouped R1 work ? Why is so important to know ?


  Every man has his own vocation

Coincidence, Einstein said, is God's Way of Remaining Anonymous





-pentru tot ce puteam sa vad si nu am vazut!
-pentru tot ce puteam sa aud si nu am auzit!
-pentru tot ce puteam sa simt si nu am simtit!
-pentru tot ce as fi putut sa inteleg si nu am inteles!
-pentru tot ce puteam sa constientizez si nu am constientizat!
-pentru iertarea pe care as fi putut sa o dau si nu am dat-o!
-pentru bucuria pe care as fi putut sa o traiesc si nu am trait-o!
-pentru Lumina pe care as fi putut sa o primesc si nu am primit-o!
-pentru viata pe care as fi putut sa o ocrotesc si nu am ocrotit-o!
-pentru visele pe care mi le-as fi putut împlini si nu le-am implinit!
-pentru necunoscutul in care as fi putut sa pasesc si din teama, nu am
indraznit sa pasesc!
-pentru iubirea pe care as fi putut sa o exprim si nu am exprimat-o!

The talent is the call. There is one direction in which all space is open to him. He has faculties silently inviting him thither to endless exertion. He is like a ship in a river; he runs against obstructions on every side but one; on that side all obstruction is taken away, and he sweeps serenely over God's depths into an infinite sea. This talent and this call depend on his organization, or the mode in which a general soul incarnates in him. He inclines to do something which is easy to him, and good when it is done, but which no other man can do. He has no rival.  For the more truly he consults his own powers, the more difference will his work exhibit from the work of any other. When he is true and faithful, his ambition is exactly proportional to his powers. By doing his work he makes the need felt which he can supply.  [Emerson]  

Never do as others do.

Either do nothing, just go to school, or do something no one else does.  Gurdjieff   

Minority report: Some years ago, a big white butterfly flew around me and, sat on my hand three times in a row... The Inventor of Roundffusor1 have the gift of sensing the sound fields in details. So...let's see if this is possible :

''What special  auditory sensitivity is required in order to be sound experts? This chapter- from a Japanese paper, describes what we mean by professional auditory sensitivity. As a basic ability, sound professionals should have the ability to discriminate between different sounds. The first step is discerning a difference. After learning to recognize a difference, the sound professional should be able to identify various types of perceived differences, such as differences in pitch, loudness and timbre.

These three elements are the most basic auditory aspects of sounds. However, the ability to discriminate is not sufficient. Sound professionals should also develop the ability to correlate the auditory difference with the physical properties of sounds.

The sound professional should expect to come across numerous technical terms expressing acoustic features, e.g. sound pressure level, frequency, and spectrum. When a sound professional needs to explain an auditory difference, this difference should be expressed using the appropriate technical term. Furthermore, the sound professional should be able to imagine the proper sounds when given the acoustic properties of the sounds, just as expert musicians can imagine music by looking at a score.

Design plans and specifications are described by the acoustical technical terms: e.g. transmission loss or reverberation time. Sound professionals should be able to imagine sounds upon inspection of specifications. When controlling audio equipment, the sound professional should be able to imagine the controlled sounds.

For example, when recording engineers use sound effecters, such as equalizers and reverb processors, they can anticipate the processed sounds before controlling the effecter.

Through Technical Listening Training, students can improve their sound sensitivity and understanding of the relationship between acoustic properties and auditory impression.'' Don't go away. There is something more and new on: ''How do you persist when your molecules don't''.

To the question :''How does a brain integrate sensory information that occurs over a time on the scale of ~0.5 seconds, transforming the constantly changing world of stimuli into percepts of a ‘moment’ of time'', here is the full text. Our main research field is psychoacoustic, the field of science which studies how we perceive sound and extract meaningful data from acoustical signals. It concerns itself primarily with low level functions of the auditory system and thus doesn’t much overlap with the study of music or esthetics. Here we can see how much.

                  The Sound

    that you hear ( as much as your brain is trained to...) in your Studio or Room, is colored by acoustic distortion caused by the room's interfering reflections and modal response.  Our job WAS to understand quickly and easily minimize these problems and optimize your listening environment.

Now with the Roundffusor1, it's  simple. It is the acoustical tool for all who loves music and wants to hear all the details from the beloved recordings or to clearly hear what they are playing when live, instrumental and amplified music is emerging. Listening LP's in a room treated with R1 is something more than just using a very good turntable...

On HI-FI, High-End, Home Cinema or big multi-channel Cinema Halls, Recording Studios, TV Studios or Auditoriums, Churches, Press conference rooms and mainly in Music Schools where our natural musical traditions must be preserved, the Roundffusor1 is doing his marvel job and...the people becomes happy 101%... And perhaps happiness is related with pleasure


ROUNDFFUSOR1- Model ''Any surface'' or ''Portable'' .Important note: for those of you decided to acquire our Roundffusor1 but intending to keep the old ''acoustical treatment surfaces'', we provide an improved Roundffusor1 with the same geometry, material and same external dimensions, just about 1 Kg heavier. It can be mounted - wood framed, upon fiberglass fabrics covered, on any kind of rugose wall - stone wall, not plain decorative wood panels, etc., or any kind of porous or absorptive foam materials. In this way, cannot be acoustically influenced by the surface upon it is mounted. This model may be used also in high-end shows or professional demo rooms, or may be sent to clients who doesn't allow that the R1 to be directly mounted on the wall surface.

This model doesn't need any heavy sustaining wood back panel ! More, with the provided wood parts, permitting a logical and easy assembling, you may have a portable Roundffusors surface. As the Roundffusor1 standard, the 9 or 12 or 15 grouped portable R1 must be positioned behind the speakers or behind the listening place, always symmetrically towards the source's median axis. The distance between the portable R1 kit to the back wall- just few millimeters. It may be mounted or dismantled in minutes, or if your room permits, with some care, be entirely moved to another place. If you insist, 4 or 6 small plastic wheels will make the portable R1 a ''small sound vehicle'' from room to room ! Once you are convinced that our invention is an useful one, you mount the R1's directly on the wall's surface, having no more acoustical room problems, a resolute situation. A solution already accepted by the audio professionals and musicians.                             


  As said elsewhere, ''with current knowledge, the interaction between the [human] binaural processor and higher level cognitive processes can only be addressed through indirect psychophysical evidence''.

Applications & Ideas ...or, more about MASKING & LOUDNESS. In the last months I wrote some articles presenting my invention, I've done further research in the subtle aural perception of R1's . In this site I post some ideas, I care about on every word and slowly, [there are still some people reading carefully] and,...until hard evidence will appear with some biophysical measurements, I believe this :  the way that statistically our nerve firings rate ''sparks'' and their electric signal fade away , in some way are related with the myriads of reverb tails in rooms. Seems that in a way , the Roundffusor1 ordinates and calm the many room resonance modes (or eigenfrequencies) and their RT's (reverberation time/s) of any temporal.  If the room modes (often named standing waves) becomes smooth, but without the harmful for the music mid and high frequencies attenuation, our natural inhibition mechanism lowers somehow leaving the music flow to our hearing & pleasure.

This presumption is an idea of mine and in part is (already) explained/proved by some medical studies (fMRI). We have independent indications on the loudness growth. ''There are many aspects of auditory perception, such as the growth of loudness with duration and the effects of masking, which indicate that the auditory system performs some sort of temporal integration in processing incoming acoustic signals. However, the auditory system is also capable of fine temporal resolution, as evidenced by gap detection, double click discrimination, and also in the short latency and lack of jitter of onset responses in cortex.

This has been termed the resolution-integration paradox, i.e. how is it possible for a system to integrate information over long periods while retaining fine temporal resolution. Most accounts which satisfy the integration criterion use long time constants and therefore fail to behave swiftly enough to explain fine temporal resolution, and vice versa'' (Denham1999).

Of course, this explanation must be corroborated with many others because there are multiple mechanisms involved in all this: some are related with temporal masking - backward, forward, etc., some with the powerful diffusion field emerging from the R1's surface. The front R1's surface is producing diffusion and the R1's back cavity adaptable low frequency absorption ,this being a mechanism belonging to the superposition principle, a very hard to prove task. Think that all this complex activity is a dynamic one (see here ''Dynamics of Precise Spike Timing in Primary Auditory Cortex''), simply because the music is a complex and running phenomenon.   Here is a paper & a list, related to music and brain.

There is no other acoustical material in the world doing everything from a sole object. In this way, there are not so many local pressure changes and in just one area , nor other surfaces affected by any other absorption on mid and high frequency. The older phrase that '' maybe diffusion is more convenient than absorption'' was never practically realized because all previous diffusers had enough direct or related absorption and separated low frequencies absorbers were used.

It was a clear explanation for me, that needing more diffusing followed with analogous absorption in an almost endless situation , ending at the room's surface limits. And then, the room almost completely fitted with ''non clean diffusers'' was more than enough filled with disastrous for the music clarity - the absorption. Seems that nobody gave enough importance to the next step in the acoustical studies: the normal  room or studio one, will have further furniture, racks of electronics, instruments and people- not only owners/sound engineers, but friends, producers, arrangers, etc. All this are doing by themselves an important reverberation time reducing, just by making smaller the overall room's volume.

All this ''supports'' the absorption with new ''quantities''.  The related books, even the best considered ones, have many things on how to treat a room, what to build as acoustical material components, but not precisely how much to put and where and what happens with all those materials at sounds of higher levels where the non linear phenomena appears. They refers only to one source, tones and not about real music at realistic levels. In this way, part of room have better result but the rest not, and overall, the room sounds at best filled in mediocrity. Something like the naked King story... Many of you perceived the problems , but inertia and others blame and faults is harder, and for years nobody really encountered the problem.

Here , below we have the clear diffusion benefices. When the Roundffusor1 are used as the sole room treatment [any kind of room], even if we remember or not the Shannon theory of information [ where 0 means non or lost information and 1 being the transmitted and understood /perceived message - for us the meaning of a song's words and context and the music's details] all room acoustical imperfections are or tends dynamically to me corrected. With the R1, what more than 99% of listeners perceived is an obvious clearer sound without any trace of any kind of echoes, the overall room time coherence containing all the details from the source.

The 25-35 msec interval where the named preceding effect arrives and makes distinct two or more reflections is ''embedded'' and masked into the diffusion field. The loudness [one of his definition being ''the perceived sound intensity when we are focusing our attention towards the sound'' ] is freely and suddenly perceived even by the hearing impaired people. The estimated 1,5-2 dB loudness increase is a clear explanation of R1's adaptability and a confirmation of the diffusion superiority against the old and too tired absorption from soft/porous/foam materials. 

A prove for that?  From a paper ''The effect of ceramic vases on the acoustics of old Greek orthodox churches''  we can read: ''The effect of resonators on the acoustics of orthodox churches was studied. Empty bottles of commercial refreshment were used as resonators. A total number of 480 resonators having the same resonant frequency, were placed inside a church, in steps of 100 resonators each time, and the impulse response of the church was measured and analyzed in 1/1 and 1/3 octave band analysis. The effect of resonators is rather poor.

An amplification of sound in the near field of resonators was observed as well as a small attenuation of the sound level in the reverberant part of the field in the resonant frequency and near to a higher overtone. A remarkable increase of C80 and D50 at resonant frequency was also observed''. See? ... using ''resonators having the same resonant frequency'' they obtained higher levels of C80 and D50, meaning an increase in Clarity and Definition which for our ears might be ''translated'' into loudness increase.

Now, considering that R1 is in fact an active device, the benefits upon C80 and D50 are proved as being really sensed without the need for instrumentation. Don’t forget that our ears are still and perhaps will be forever the most performing and detailed spectrum analyzer available.

More, a direct result of using the R1 is a perceptible EDT's reduction, becoming sensible smaller then the RT60. It is known that the EDT is considered as the subjective way for us to perceive the character of a room along with it's reverberation (RT) timbre and ''RT's tails'' (which for the EDT -Early Delay Time, is a kind of RT10 ). If EDT is bigger or similar with the true RT60, then the room's intelligibility is reduced and along with it, and the musical details, covered by the reverberation time's envelope. Needless to say, in all rooms treated with R1, the EDT was smaller than the true RT60. 

When does the grouped R1 work ? 

Another physical aspect indicating or ‘’illuminating’’ why the R1 is producing an enhancement of some components (loudness – at least) of the excited acoustical field is the notion of radiosity, see  from Radiosity1 : ‘’The radiosity technique, involving the transfer of energy between diffusely reflecting subsections of its surfaces, has been used to predict all or part of a room’s acoustical response. However, especially in the light of the inherent assumption of diffuse reflection, there is a need to establish the applicability of the method; this was the objective of the work reported here. A radiosity algorithm for rectangular rooms was developed. Measurements were made of impulse responses in a three rooms with different size and distributions of absorption.

From these relevant room-acoustical quantities – such as steady-state levels, reverberation times, early-to-late energy fractions – were calculated in octave bands. These were compared to radiosity predictions done for each room using physically-plausible input parameter values, in order to evaluate the applicability of the method. In its simplest from, the one that will be used in computer radiosity simulation techniques, radiosity assumes that all surfaces in the room are diffuse reflectors''. That is a paradox because [except fortunate situations occurring in big and very big rooms where a kind of natural diffusion appears] without real and installed proper sound diffusers such diffused fields are difficult /impossible to be obtained. Reading again from [ radiosity1.pdf] :’’ radiosity tends to “smear” energy in time, so that reflections arrive at the receiver position much more consistently and uniformly''.

This [again, our note] can be explained by the assumption of diffuse reflection used in radiosity. ’’ If the walls of the rooms studied here were not perfectly diffusely reflecting, this could explain differences between measurement and prediction. Smearing tends to spread some of the early energy to later energy, which may explain why predicted C50 levels tended to be lower than measured (that the amount by which some C50 predictions were lower than measured values is still of some concern). The underestimation of reverberation times was somewhat surprising and remains to be analyzed’’. The radiosity techniques takes the average intensity of the energy radiated by small patches [discretizing the room’s interior surface into patches]. It is considered that the source radiates energy to each of the patches that are subsequently treated as secondary sources.

Speaking in terms of energy, we must be careful enough on this because energy [ at a specific surface point and time period] contains part of the music’s dynamics and also [music] energy is following the local room resonances which is not at all a static phenomenon. So the theoretical ‘’slices’’ of energy taken and then reintegrated as a whole may contain overshooted sound information [ that’s It-a psychoacoustical term indicating an accumulation of sensations from multiple causes – masking – specifically ] in fact distortion / interferences in this context and ‘’errors’’ in a computer way of speaking. That’s why one thing are the virtual /aural simulations and enough different are real live situations. Don’t forget that our ears are still and perhaps will be forever the most performing spectrum analyzer available.

That’s why the Roundffusor1, if thinking in terms of radiosity, ‘’takes’’ into account the source/s loudness or the ‘’local’’ loudness if you prefer, and reradiates the energy by the very powerful diffused field which this unique material is producing. The announced 1,5-2 dB of loudness enhancement, viewed in terms of radiosity is a perceptual quantity meaning simply enhancement and not absorption surely related with a an energy loss and of course related to the intelligibility loss. More , when using our R1 , the loudness values at both ears is not head position dependent and more, not body dependent position in the room.

The Roundffusor1 , in some way, encodes the sources information and the included delays and our hearing is followed by this information almost anywhere in the room , as a  hologram at each moment and the next moment contains a small part from the previous one [ as a legato] and the next dynamical spectrum, music being a continuous flow of information. There is a consistency in the way that each ‘’patch’’ representing one Roundffusor1 is adding his ‘’valued support’’ to the overall effect produced by the grouped R1.                                                 

There is an another aspect regarding the masking produced by the low frequency (discussed in this site at The low frequency problems and our unique solution) and is more, an ''intellectual'' one: '' There is another well-known effect of the old-plus-new heuristic: it is called apparent continuity, auditory induction, or the continuity illusion. It occurs when a short part of a sound or sequence of sounds is removed and a louder masking sound inserted in its place. Under certain conditions, the listener hears the original sound continue through the loud interruption. This phenomenon is not an illusion.

The sound that is "restored" is actually present in the masking sound. The latter is called a masking sound because it would have masked the original sound had it really been there. However, in order to mask it, the same neural activity that would normally have been instigated by the original sound would have had to be present as part of the activity instigated by the masker. Therefore the original sound, or at least its neural effect, is there, but in the same sense that a statue is present in an uncut stone. One could say that the rest of the stone was masking the statue if one chose to. In the auditory case, the presence of the undisguised signal, before and after the masker, allows the perceptual system to carve out a portion of the neural stimulation to act as a continuation of the signal''. From "Using brief glimpses to decompose mixtures" by A.S. Bregman. *** But the research shown there used just multiple tones and less music...

More [from elsewhere], cconsidering that there are around 100,000 cells below a square millimeter of cortex, the potential representational capacity of any one cortical region is enormous. Just remember the Plato and Aristotle ideas about finding answers to anything just by deep thinking, it is logically that [at least in the human range of acoustical phenomena ] our senses and intuition are by far away more powerful than any audio analyzer and corroborates data in a more intimate way than any computer. It was found that microsecond differences in the arrival time of a sound at the two ears (interaural time differences, ITDs) are the main cue for localizing low-frequency sounds in space. This means that this kind of location is a subclass of another phenomena (the precedence effect being into the milliseconds zone and not in the microseconds one) so subtle is our hearing system.

Here, speaking about R1, it is sure that our device is an answer in a practical way, to all this details, not easy to be analysed and until now impossible to be calmed just by a single passive device (not being electrically powered); is surely step forward in acoustics.The design and the excellent results of using the Roundffusor1 is not [only] a question of money.

Is much more: an important cultural step helping people who love music, any kind of music, to return to their hobby before is too late.

In other words this means that your listening or home cinema room doesn't need to look like a recording studio or an architecturally, aesthetically & heavy absorption charged villa's suite, which may be the road to indulge ourselves in a little bit or more luxury, but surely not the way to the ideal sound.

In a room treated with ONLY 9 or 12 Roundffusor1, you will feel as being in your usual room without any of the previous problems, your speaking and hearing will be naturally perceived. Could it be that the Holy Grail of all interior architectural acoustics has been found? In fact, I didn't invented the cheap water working engine or the perpetuum mobile, but I have all the human reasons to be proud!  WHAT IS CERTAIN: A NEW OBJECT HAS BEEN INVENTED TO RETURN THE PLEASURE OF LISTENING TO MUSIC.  Just think or accept the difference ! 

So, the superposition principle, the psychoacoustical plethora of phenomena along with cortex's hearing activity analysis, radiosity ideas, the R1's low frequency adaptive absorption, must be putted together in order to have an unified elegant explanation on the huge roundffusor1's characteristics.   More on ''  Roundffusor1 '' from the site 's menu.

More about sound quality and taste are excerpted from David Hume’s 1757 essay,

Of the Standard of Taste,” as edited by Julie Van Camp.

   '' The great variety of Taste, as well as of opinion, which prevails in the world, is too obvious not to have fallen under every one's observation. Men of the most confined knowledge are able to remark a difference of taste in the narrow circle of their acquaintance, even where the persons have been educated under the same government, and have early imbibed the same prejudices. But those, who can enlarge their view to contemplate distant nations and remote ages, are still more surprised at the great inconsistence and contrariety. We are apt to call barbarous whatever departs widely from our own taste and apprehension: But soon find the epithet of reproach retorted on us. And the highest arrogance and self-conceit is at last startled, on observing an equal assurance on all sides, and scruples, amidst such a contest of sentiment, to pronounce positively in its own favour.

... But though there be naturally a wide difference in point of delicacy between one person and another, nothing tends further to increase and improve this talent, than practice in a particular art, and the frequent survey or contemplation of a particular species of beauty. When objects of any kind are first presented to the eye or imagination, the sentiment, which attends them, is obscure and confused; and the mind is, in a great measure, incapable of pronouncing concerning their merits or defects. The taste cannot perceive the several excellences of the performance; much less distinguish the particular character of each excellency, and ascertain its quality and degree. If it pronounce the whole in general to be beautiful or deformed, it is the utmost that can be expected; and even this judgment, a person, so unpracticed, will be apt to deliver with great hesitation and reserve.

But allow him to acquire experience in those objects, his feeling becomes more exact and nice: He not only perceives the beauties and defects of each part, but marks the distinguishing species of each quality, and assigns it suitable praise or blame. A clear and distinct sentiment attends him through the whole survey of the objects; and he discerns that very degree and kind of approbation or displeasure, which each part is naturally fitted to produce. The mist dissipates, which seemed formerly to hang over the object: the organ acquires greater perfection in its operations; and can pronounce, without danger of mistake, concerning the merits of every performance. In a word, the same address and dexterity, which practice gives to the execution of any work, is also acquired by the same means in the judging of it.

So advantageous is practice to the discernment of beauty, that, before we can give judgment of any work of importance, it will even be requisite, that that very individual performance be more than once perused by us, and be surveyed in different lights with attention and deliberation. There is a flutter or hurry of thought which attends the first perusal of any piece, and which confounds the genuine sentiment of beauty. The relation of the parts is not discerned: The true characters of style are little distinguished: The several perfections and defects seem wrapped up in a species of confusion, and present themselves indistinctly to the imagination. Not to mention, that there is a species of beauty, which, as it is florid and superficial, pleases at first; but being found incompatible with a just expression either of reason or passion, soon palls upon the taste, and is then rejected with disdain, at least rated at a much lower value.

It is impossible to continue in the practice of contemplating any order of beauty, without being frequently obliged to form comparisons between the several species and degrees of excellence, and estimating their proportion to each other. A man, who has had no opportunity of comparing the different kinds of beauty, is indeed totally unqualified to pronounce an opinion with regard to any object presented to him. By comparison alone we fix the epithets of praise or blame, and learn how to assign the due degree of each. The coarsest daubing contains a certain lustre of colours and highest admiration. The most vulgar ballads are not entirely destitute of harmony or nature; and none but a person, familiarized to superior beauties, would pronounce their numbers harsh, or narration uninteresting.

A great inferiority of beauty gives pain to a person conversant in the highest excellence of the kind, and is for that reason pronounced a deformity: As the most finished object, with which we are acquainted, is naturally supposed to have reached the pinnacle of perfection, and to be entitled to the highest applause. One accustomed to see, and examine, and weigh the several performances, admired in different ages and nations, can only rate the merits of a work exhibited to his view, and assign its proper rank among the productions of genius. But to enable a critic the more fully to execute this undertaking, he must preserve his mind free from all prejudice, and allow nothing to enter into his consideration, but the very object which is submitted to his examination. We may observe, that every work of art, in order to produce its due effect on the mind, must be surveyed in a certain point of view, and not be fully relished by persons, whose situation, real or imaginary, is not conformable to that which is required by the performance.

An orator addresses himself to a particular audience, and must have a regard to their particular genius, interests, opinions, passions, and prejudices; otherwise he hopes in vain to govern their resolutions, and inflame their affections. Should they even have entertained some prepossessions against him, however unreasonable, he must not overlook this disadvantage; but, before he enters upon the subject, must endeavour to conciliate their affection, and acquire their good graces. A critic of a different age or notion, who should peruse this discourse, must have all these circumstances in his eye, and must place himself in the same situation as the audience, in order to form a true judgment of the oration. In like manner, when any work is addressed to the public, though I should have a friendship or enmity with the author, I must depart from this situation; and considering myself as a man in general, forget, if possible, my individual being and my peculiar circumstances.

A person influenced by prejudice, complies not with this condition; but obstinately maintains his natural position, without placing himself in that point of view, which the performance supposes. If the work be addressed to persons of a different age or nation, he makes no allowance for their peculiar views and prejudices; but, full of the manners of his own age and country, rashly condemns what seemed admirable in the eyes of those for whom alone the discourse was calculated. If the work be executed for the public, he never sufficiently enlarges his comprehension, or forgets his interest as a friend or enemy, as a rival or commentator. By this means, his sentiments are perverted; nor have the same beauties and blemishes the same influence upon him, as if he had imposed a proper violence on his imagination, and had forgotten himself for a moment. So far his taste evidently departs from the true standard; and of consequence loses all credit and authority.

It is well known, that in all questions, submitted to the understanding, prejudice is destructive of sound judgment, and perverts all operations of the intellectual faculties: It is no less contrary to good taste; nor has it less influence to corrupt our sentiment of beauty. It belongs to good sense to check its influence in both cases; and in this respect, as well as in many others, reason, if not an essential part of taste, is at least requisite to the operations of this latter faculty. In all the nobler productions of genius, there is a mutual relation and correspondence of parts; nor can either the beauties or blemishes be perceived by him, whose thought is not capacious enough to comprehend all those parts, and compare then with each other, in order to perceive the consistence and uniformity of the whole. Every work of art has also a certain end or purpose, for which it is calculated; and is to be deemed more or less perfect, as it is more or less fitted to attain this end.

The object of eloquence is to persuade, of history to instruct, of poetry to please by means of the passions and the imagination. These ends we must carry constantly in our view, when we peruse any performance; and we must be able to judge how far the means employed are adapted to their respective purposes. Besides, every kind of composition, even the most poetical, is nothing but a chain of propositions and reasonings; not always, indeed, the justest and most exact, but still plausible and specious, however disguised by the colouring of the imagination.

The persons introduced in tragedy and epic poetry, must be represented as reasoning, and thinking, and concluding, and acting, suitably to their character and circumstances; and without judgment, as well as taste and invention, a poet can never hope to succeed in so delicate an undertaking. Not to mention, that the same excellence of faculties which contributes to the improvement of reason, the same clearness of conception, the same exactness of distinction, the same vivacity of apprehension, are essential to the operations of true taste, and are its infallible concomitants. It seldom, or never happens, that a man of sense, who has experience in any art, cannot judge of its beauty; and it is no less rare to meet with a man who has a just taste without a sound understanding.

Thus, though the principles of taste be universal, and, nearly, if not entirely the same in all men; yet few are qualified to give judgment on any work of art, or establish their own sentiment as the standard of beauty. The organs of internal sensation are seldom so perfect as to allow the general principles their full play, and produce a feeling correspondent to those principles. They either labour under some defect, or are vitiated by some disorder; and by that means, excite a sentiment, which may be pronounced erroneous. When the critic has no delicacy, he judges without any distinction, and is only affected by the grosser and more palpable qualities of the object: The finer touches pass unnoticed and disregarded. Where he is not aided by practice, his verdict is attended with confusion and hesitation.

Where no comparison has been employed, the most frivolous beauties, such as rather merit the name of defects., are the object of his admiration. Where he lies under the influence of prejudice, all his natural sentiments are perverted. Where good sense is wanting, he is not qualified to discern the beauties of design and reasoning, which are the highest and most excellent. Under some or other of these imperfections, the generality of men labour; and hence a true judge in the finer arts is observed, even during the most polished ages, to be so rare a character; Strong sense, united to delicate sentiment, improved by practice, perfected by comparison, and cleared of all prejudice, can alone entitle critics to this valuable character; and the joint verdict of such, wherever they are to be found, is the true standard of taste and beauty. But where are such critics to be found? By what marks are they to be known? How distinguish them from pretenders?

These questions are embarrassing; and seem to throw us back into the same uncertainty, from which, during the course of this essay, we have endeavoured to extricate ourselves. But if we consider the matter aright, these are questions of fact, not of sentiment. Whether any particular person be endowed with good sense and a delicate imagination, free from prejudice, may often be the subject of dispute, and be liable to great discussion and enquiry: but that such a character is valuable and estimable will be agreed in by all mankind.

Where these doubts occur, men can do no more than in other disputable questions, which are submitted to the understanding: They must produce the best arguments, that their invention suggests to them; they must acknowledge a true and decisive standard to exist somewhere, to wit, real existence and matter of fact; and they must have indulgence to such as differ from them in their appeals to this standard.

It is sufficient for our present purpose, if we have proved, that the taste of all individuals is not upon an equal footing, and that some men in general, however difficult to be particularly pitched upon, will be acknowledged by universal sentiment to have a preference above others ''.

In other words - I can say - that the music must be let to sounds freely, any absorption which retains something from it will distort our perception.  And perception is already a delicate mater...

For me... for them

Dor...and more Mihail Eminescu - in Romanian here English, here
Sanda Anghelescu - DOAMNA revistei "Formula AS" a plecat  spre zarile albastre
>Sound & Hi-Fi , High-End category  > R1's Reference test - In Greek
>Sémiotique et musique
                                                                              >Les diatheses homeopatiques





Die 5 Biologischen Naturgesetze - Die Dokumentation






Ομοιοπαθητικό Οδοντιατρικό Ινστιτούτο Γλυφάδας

The last ''innocents'' ? credeati barbati da?....



>More music aesthetics and some acoustical consequences [paper1,  paper2 paper3, paper4 paper5,     paper8,   paper10,  paper11]
>Seven questions that keep physicists up at night
>Beautiful evidence
>Science's Alternative to an Intelligent Creator: the >Multiverse Theory

>For my friends, many articles, are here  



black and white photos and more

We are a global community whose strong passion is creative and experimental analogue film photography

Mr. John Economou is my first and steady friend in Greece, from 1986



My very good friends


Namaste Cosmos Group





Namaste, later called Namaste Cosmos, is a group of musicians who started to play together in 2000 around the main figure of its creator, composer, lead guitar and singer Athanas Kleopas.

Kleopas’ compositions , influenced by world and Greek music have been performed in some of the best clubs of Greece, at the International Ethnic Jazz Festival Dimitria, 2005 Thessaloniki, and as representatives of Greece at the International Music Festival of Ohrid, Skopje in 2006.

Next to Kleopas are

Harperi, on harp,

Yiannis Pandazis on Tsabouna (ancient form of bagpipe) and other wind instruments,

Kyriakos Fotiadis on piano,

Kostas Anastasiadis on drums,

Daniel Adegbola on bass and

Tosin Oyedele on percussions



Namaste 2007

Innocent Demons 2008

Namaste Cosmos, Shores of the soul 2012






    After thousandths of hours of listening, I begun to compose or experiment in composing myself. Here are some of them.  Most of my personal experimental music is avant-garde...

Year 4 -  Roundffusor1 & myexperimentalmusic

Experiment6Dream- L'ombra del vento

Experiment16Dream- Dreaming dreams

Experiment4Dream- His eyes from her sweet face

Experiment17Dream-Distant delicate desire

Experiment19Dream-Random future

Experiment1Dream- Emotional time travel

Experiment18Dream-Reading soul device

Experiment3Dream- Strange angels in paradise

John Cage about music and memory

Experiment12Dream-Exotic dreams

Experiment21Dream- Ondes doux sur la surface d'un lac

Experiment11Dream-Lilys pleasure

Experiment9Dream-Frank Coppola's Conversation-homage

Pentru cine intelege :)

Experiment20Dream- Georgianna

Experiment2Dream- Rotten eucalyptus leaves

Active listening is absolutely essential

Experiment15Dream-Impressions from a cloudy morning sky



Experiment13,5Dream-Slow voices in past dream


Experiment14Dream-Hidden song

King Crimson

Experiment4Dream-Vexations two

The Color of Pomegranates / Sayat Nova - beautiful

Experiment5Dream-Shes beautiful forever

Birds of Passage - Those Blackest Winter Nights (2011)


your comments ...    



Orpheon wishes to open your eyes and ears to the marvelous world of string instruments of the Renaissance, the Baroque and the Classical Periods . Here pictured Prof. José Vázquez






Company address

Mr. Zainea Liviu Nikolae / ESR,  14 Peresiadou, TK11141 Athens, Greece   

 Communications data

Tel/Fax: 0030 210 20 27 191   Mobile: 0030 693 66 07 321 


Skype: zainea.liviu

[ First page ]